Ancient Indian Science
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On the other hand, caring about thinking is impossible without the spirit of discusion - dialog, polilog [both interpersonal, and inner]; i.e., the intension to listen carefully alternative opinions, and to probe understand them as deep as possible. Here, the principles Nyaya [with dash above first "a"] (i.e, ancient Indian science of right reasoning and correct knowledge) are helpful. Nyaya states that: d i s c u s s i o n (vada) proceeds by means of the free use of syllogisms and aims at the ascertainment of truth. But it often degenerates into mere wrangling (jalpa), which aims at effect of victory and cavil (vitanda), which delights in criticism for its own sake. Such a futile discussion can be put an end to by convicting the opponent of his error and forcing him to accept defeat. The p o i n t s o f d e f e a t are of twenty two different kinds : (1) surrendering the proposition to be established; (2) shifting the argument by importing new contradictions; (3) self-contradiction; (4) disclaiming the proposition; (5) shifting the reason; (6) shifting the topic; (7) senseless talking; (8) using unintelligible jargon; (9) incoherent talk; (10) overlooking the order of argumentation; (11) dropping essential steps of argumentation; (12) elaborating the obvious; (13) repeating oneself; (14) keeping quiet; (15) not understanding the proposition; (16) wanting in resourceful replies; (17) evading the discussion by feigning illness, etc.; (18) admitting the defeat by pointing out that it is also present in the opponent's view; (19) overlooking the censurable; (20) censuring the non-censurable; (21) deviating from the accepted tenet; (22) semblance of a reason.
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